non-CDB

3 PDBs included with Oracle 19c and desupport of non-CDBs with 20c

It’s Oracle Open World week in San Francisco. and it is time for announcements of course.

3 PDBs included with Oracle 19c and desupport of non-CDBs with 20c

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What has been announced?

Today at OOW 2019, Jenny Tsai-Smith and Dominic Giles announced in their talk that the non-CDB architecture will be desupported from Oracle 20c on. But VERY IMPORTANT, from Oracle 19c on you can have 3 user-created pluggable databases of any type without a Multitenant license. As soon as you have need for 4 or more PDBs within one container database, you will need a Multitenant license.

License Guide

You can find the update regarding …

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Migration with Data Pump

You may have realized that there are a few techniques missing describing how to do a Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Migration with Data Pump is one of them. I will explain the most simple approach of going to Single- or Multitenant. It isn’t the coolest – and it isn’t very fast as soon as your database has a significant size. But it is not complex. And it allows you to move even from very old versions directly into an Oracle 19c PDB – regardless of patch levels or source and destination platform.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Migration with Data Pump

High Level Overview

Endianness change
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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Minimal Downtime Challenge

There are several pitfalls when you plugin a non-CDB into a CDB environment. I’d like to highlight some of them – and show you potential workarounds as well. This is part of a series of blog posts to make your migration from non-CDB to PDB a bit smoother.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Minimal Downtime Challenge

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Minimal Downtime Challenge

When we start to look at a migration from non-CDB to PDB for an important system, regardless of migrating on-prem or to the cloud, reducing the downtime is very important. In this blog post I’d like to highlight the different aspects …

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Fallback Challenge

There are several pitfalls when you plugin a non-CDB into a CDB environment. I’d like to highlight some of them – and show you potential workarounds as well. This is part of a series of blog posts to make your migration from non-CDB to PDB a bit smoother.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB - The Fallback Challenge

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Fallback Challenge

As I work with customers on upgrades and migrations for a very long time, I know how important a proper fallback is.

When you attempt a migration from a non-CDB to PDB, you need to plan …

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Various Pitfalls

There are several pitfalls when you plugin a non-CDB into a CDB environment. I’d like to highlight some of them – and show you potential workarounds as well. This is part of a series of blog posts to make your migration from non-CDB to PDB a bit smoother.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB - Various Pitfalls

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Various Pitfalls

In all the previous blog posts of this series I tried to explain specific pitfalls, and how you can workaround them. This article is meant to collect the “leftovers”, the minor issues and pitfalls which you may not …

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Patch Level Pitfall

There are several pitfalls when you plugin a non-CDB into a CDB environment. I’d like to highlight some of them – and show you potential workarounds as well. This is part of a series of blog posts to make your migration from non-CDB to PDB a bit smoother.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB - The Patch Level Pitfall

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Patch Level Pitfall

When you consolidate on a larger scale, it is very likely that you have different patch levels in your database environments. But when you attempt to plugin a non-CDB into a CDB, you may see …

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Component Pitfall

There are several pitfalls when you plugin a non-CDB into a CDB environment. I’d like to highlight some of them – and show you potential workarounds as well. This is part of a series of blog posts to make your migration from non-CDB to PDB a bit smoother.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB - The Component Pitfall

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The Component Pitfall

With component we mean the database component which you can find in DBA_REGISTRY – or CDB_REGISTRY. When Multitenant became available over 5 years ago, a decision had been made to make all options/components mandatory in a container database. This decision had to …

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Time Zone Pitfall

There are several pitfalls when you plugin a non-CDB into a CDB environment. I’d like to highlight some of them – and show you potential workarounds as well. This is part of a series of blog posts to make your migration from non-CDB to PDB a bit smoother.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB - The Time Zone Pitfall

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The Time Zone Pitfall

Interestingly, there is no issue with different time zone settings within a single CDB. Your CDB$ROOT can be on DST V.32 whereas a PDB you plugin can be already on DST V.33. But only

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The COMPATIBLE pitfall

There are several pitfalls when you plugin a non-CDB into a CDB environment. I’d like to highlight some of them – and show you potential workarounds as well. This is part of a series of blog posts to make your migration from non-CDB to PDB a bit smoother.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB - The COMPATIBLE pitfall

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – The COMPATIBLE pitfall

When you migrate your non-CDB to PDB, in most cases the COMPATIBLE setting of the non-CDB will be lower than the setting of the receiving CDB. But still in this case you may see warnings. I will explain how to deal with …

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Typical Plugin Issues and Workarounds

In the previous blog posts I showed different approaches on how to migrate your database on a same Endianness platform into Multitenant. Whether you prefer to upgrade first or plugin first is up to you. I recommend upgrading first as this allows you a seamless fallback. But regardless of which approach you prefer, you may take care on potential pitfalls. Hence, this blog post is about Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Typical Plugin Issues and Workarounds. It may not be complete when I publish it and I may extend it later on. Let me know if you have …

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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Clone via NON$CDB, upgrade, convert

The third option for plugging in a non-CDB is called Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Clone via NON$CDB, upgrade, convert. As I showed already in this blog post a while ago, your source must be at least an Oracle 12.1 database. And this technique can be used also only for same-Endianness migrations but does not apply if you’d like to migrate from Big to Little Endian. If your source database matches already the receiving CDB, no upgrade is necessary.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Clone via NON$CDB, upgrade, convert

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High Level Overview

Endianness change possible:
No
Source database versions: Oracle 12.1.0.2
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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Plug in, upgrade, convert

This is my next blog post about Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Plug in, upgrade, convert. But what is different from the previous one? And why is it necessary? Since Oracle Database 12.2.0.1 you can plugin a non-CDB at first, the upgrade and convert it. And I’ll show you this technique here.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Plug in, upgrade, convert

Photo by Dan Freeman on Unsplash

High Level Overview

Endianness change possible: No
Source database versions: Oracle 12.2.0.1 or newer (or 12.1.0.2 when CDB has shared UNDO)
Characteristic: Plugin into CDB first
Upgrade necessary: Yes, after plugin
Downtime: Plugin, copy (optional), upgrade and noncdb_to_pdb.sql
Minimal
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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Upgrade, plug in, convert

As first blog post of this series about Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Upgrade, plug in, convert I will explain the most straight forward approach of going to Single- or Multitenant. But you have other options as well. which I’ll showcase in the other blog posts. I demonstrated this technique on the blog already a while ago. But since Oracle 12.2.0.1, there are a few other options available.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB - Upgrade, plug in, convert

High Level Overview

Endianness change possible: No
Source database versions: Oracle 11.2.0.4 or newer
Characteristic: Upgrade non-CDB first
Upgrade necessary: Yes, before plugin
Downtime:
Upgrade, plugin, copy (optional) and
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Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Overview

Today I’ll start a blog post series of several “how to” articles about database migration from non-CDB to PDB – Overiew. You’ll find a quick introduction below. And of course, the links to all the other related blog posts.

Database Migration from non-CDB to PDB – Overview

When you plan to move from non-CDB, the Oracle term for regular database deployments, to a Pluggable Database (PDB), you will migrate your database. It will become a PDB and run as part of a Container Database (CDB). This is a well known concept for several years now called Oracle Multitenant. If you …

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Transportable Tablespace PDB Migration and Local Undo

Transportable Tablespace PDB Migration and Local Undo

Photo by Steve Johnson on Unsplash

Sometimes it is necessary to warn you about known pitfalls to avoid frustration. In this particular case I decided not to blog about it simply because I thought this won’t happen to too many other people. Well, yesterday my good friend Philippe Fierens dropped me a message about an issue he ran into with a Transportable Tablespace PDB Migration and Local Undo. And I immediately knew what caused him trouble – and I regret that I didn’t blog about it (sorry Philippe!). We’ve seen the same problem with a large ExaCC migration project …

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Unified Auditing policies can slow down the upgrade

Unified Auditing policies can slow down the upgradeI posted several blog posts about Unified Auditing in the past. And recently a large customer in the UK alerted me about their upgrades with PDBs from 12.1 to 12.2 taking much longer when Unified Auditing policies were enabled. It looks like as if Unified Auditing policies can slow down the upgrade.

We did some further investigations. See the results below.

Unified Auditing

You find a good number of blog posts explaining how to migrate to Unified Auditing, the performance tweaks in Oracle 12.1.0.2 and some other things:

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Cloning with Pluggable Databases in Oracle 18c

We had several discussions on the internal mailing lists the other day about cloning with Pluggable Databases in Oracle 18c (or 12.2.0.1). And I blogged about this topic a while ago but realized I may need to refresh this a bit.

Cloning with Pluggable Databases in Oracle 18c

My example from the old blog post still works fine. But I realized that I switched my database into read-only mode. Hence, I like to repeat it and check different options.

Cloning a 12.1 PDB into Oracle 18c

In the source CDB1 I create a fresh PDB first, then open it and create a cloning user with the necessary …

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Oracle Label Security (OLS) Clean Up in Oracle Database 11.2-12.2

Oracle Label Security (OLS) Clean Up in Oracle Database 11.2-12.2Oracle Label Security (OLS) clean up in Oracle Database 11.2-12.2 is almost as simple and straight forward as removing OWM or APEX. You can do it online without downtime. But in older releases a relink operation did cause downtime. Oracle Label Security is an extra cost option. More information is available on oracle.com.

Oracle Label Security (OLS) Clean Up in Oracle Database 11.2-12.2

Oracle Label Security (OLS) Clean Up in Oracle Database 11.2-12.2Oracle Label Security is dependent on Oracle Database Vault (DV). In case DV is present you must remove it first if you plan to remove Oracle Label Security.

Before you start removing anything from …

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Non-CDB architecture still exists in Oracle Database 12.2.

I received a question whether the Non-CDB architecture still exists in Oracle Database 12.2.from 3 different colleagues in the past week:

“Does Oracle Database 12.2 still allow us to create non-CDB databases?”

And as I get this question at every customer-facing workshop these days as well before being able to talk about Single/Multitenant – I think it is important to clarify it. The statement is misleading. And I can’t blame anybody about misreading it.

Is the non-CDB architecture still available/supported in Oracle Database 12.2?

I did blog about it a while ago – but Google is not always your …

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Upgrade to Oracle Database 12.2 – New MOS Notes

Some very helpful MOS Notes got published regarding the upgrade to Oracle Database 12.2.0.1:

Furthermore check regularly for Known Issues and Alerts – currently the note has no content but exists already:

Cheers
–Mike…

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Non-CDB architecture of Oracle databases is DEPRECATED since Oracle Database 12.1.0.2

Please find an updated blog post here:

as the text in the Database Upgrade Guide has been changed as well.


non-CDB deprecated in Oracle 12.1.0.2

What does this mean?

Deprecation first of all does not mean “desupported”. It means in this case that you of course can have still stand-alone Oracle databases as you know the architecture from previous releases. But you can also have a single-tenant deployment (a CDB with one PDB – no Multitenant license required) or multitenant databases (a CDB with up to 252 PDBs – Multitenant Option license required).…

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New MOS Notes on Database Upgrades for 12c with or without Oracle Multitenant

Please find some new MyOracle Support (MOS) Notes about Database Upgrades to Oracle Database 12c, with or without Oracle Multitenant:

Credits for the CDB/PDB Notes go to

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